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- What is Domestic Violence?
- Signs & Symptoms of Domestic Violence
- How Domestic Violence Affects Mental Health
- Domestic Violence Counseling, Therapy & Treatment
- Domestic Violence Therapy Treatment Costs & Insurance Coverage
- Domestic Violence Therapy Treatment Success & Outlook
- Additional Resources & Programs for Domestic Violence Victims
What is Domestic Violence?
Domestic violence, sometimes called intimate partner violence, is a pattern of abusive conduct perpetrated by one person against another in a domestic or intimate relationship. It can take many forms, including emotional, physical, and sexual, and it can occur between partners who are married, dating, living together, or in another type of close relationship.1
The victim of domestic abuse may suffer severe and enduring effects, including physical injuries, emotional trauma, and even death. In fact, in roughly two-thirds of all murder-suicides, the killer’s intimate partner is one of the victims.2
Additionally, in the United States, more than one in three women (35.6%) and one in four men (28.5%) have been victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by someone they were intimate with.3 Furthermore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 61 million American women and 53 million American men have experienced psychological abuse from an intimate relationship.4
Types of Domestic Abuse
Domestic abuse can take many forms and vary in severity. In addition, it’s not uncommon for victims to experience multiple types of abuse simultaneously. Below are several common types of domestic abuse that can occur in an intimate or domestic relationship:5
- Physical abuse: This involves the use of physical force to harm or injure the victim, such as hitting, punching, kicking, or slapping.
- Sexual abuse: This involves any non-consensual sexual activity or behavior, including rape, sexual assault, or coercion.
- Emotional abuse: This involves behaviors that aim to manipulate, control, or intimidate the victim, such as belittling, name-calling, gas lighting, or isolating the victim from friends and family.
- Technological abuse: This type entails using technology to track and manipulate someone else. Examples include accessing a partner’s personal email accounts and using a partner’s phone’s monitoring features to keep track of their whereabouts, calls, and texts.
- Psychological abuse: This involves behaviors that aim to undermine the victim’s self-esteem, sense of self-worth, and mental well-being, such as constant criticism, humiliation, or threats.
- Reproductive Coercion:6 Reproductive coercion occurs when one spouse interferes with the other’s capacity to control their reproductive system. It may manifest as pressure, guilt, or shame when it comes to having or wanting children (or not having or wanting them). The fact that this sort of compulsion is less visible than other abuse might make it more difficult to identify.
- Financial abuse: This involves controlling the victim’s financial resources or using money as a tool of control, such as preventing the victim from working, taking their money, or making financial decisions without their consent.
The cycle of domestic abuse, also known as the “cycle of violence,” is a typical pattern of behavior that occurs in many abusive relationships. It is not a one-time event, tending to repeat itself. The cycle typically involves these four stages:7
- Tension-building phase: During this stage, the abuser may become increasingly irritable, angry, or controlling. The victim may feel like they’re walking on eggshells to avoid upsetting the abuser. As a result, tension builds, and the victim may try to placate the abuser to avoid conflict.
- Acute or violent phase: In this stage, the tension reaches a breaking point, and the abuser becomes physically or emotionally violent. This can include physical violence, sexual assault, or emotional abuse. The victim may feel helpless and afraid.
- Reconciliation phase: After the acute or violent phase, the abuser may show remorse or apologize for their behavior. They may promise to change and be kind or affectionate towards the victim. The victim may feel hopeful that things will improve and believe the abuser’s promises.
- Calm phase: During this stage, the abuser may act as if nothing happened and be kind and loving towards the victim. The relationship may seem stable and calm, and the victim may feel relieved.
It’s important to note that not all abusive relationships follow this pattern, and the cycle can look different for each individual. However, recognizing the signs of abuse and seeking help is essential for breaking the cycle and promoting safety and healing.
Causes and Risk Factors
The causes and risk factors of domestic abuse are complex and multifaceted, and there is no single explanation for why domestic abuse occurs. Abuse, however, is a learned behavior and a choice. In addition, someone may be more vulnerable to abuse for various reasons. However, none of these things cause abuse. Instead, they offer an explanation.
Below are several factors that may contribute to the development of abusive behavior in a relationship:8
- Learned behavior: Individuals who grow up in abusive households or witness domestic abuse in their families may be more likely to engage in abusive behavior themselves.
- Power and control: Domestic abuse often involves gaining and maintaining power and control over a partner. This can stem from insecurity, low self-esteem, or a need for dominance.
- Substance abuse: The use of drugs or alcohol can impair judgment and increase the likelihood of abusive behavior.
- Mental health issues: Individuals who struggle with mental health issues, such as depression, anxiety, or personality disorders, may be more likely to engage in abusive behavior.
- Cultural and societal factors: Cultural and societal beliefs that perpetuate gender-based violence or support the idea of male dominance can contribute to developing abusive behavior.
Some risk factors that may increase the likelihood of experiencing domestic abuse include:
- Gender: Women are more likely than men to experience domestic abuse.9
- Age: Younger adults may be more likely to experience domestic abuse.
- Socioeconomic status: Individuals living in poverty or experiencing financial stress may be more likely to experience domestic abuse.
- Relationship factors: Individuals in relationships with high levels of conflict or poor communication skills may be more likely to experience domestic abuse.
It’s important to note that no one is responsible for their partner’s abusive behavior. The abuser is always responsible for their actions, and it’s never the victim’s fault. If you or someone you know is experiencing domestic abuse, seeking help and support is important.
Signs & Symptoms of Domestic Violence
Domestic violence can take many forms and differ in severity, and it’s not always easy to recognize. In addition, these signs and symptoms may not always indicate domestic violence and could result from other issues. However, below are some common signs and symptoms that may suggest that you or someone you care about is experiencing domestic violence:
- Physical signs: Unexplained injuries, such as bruises, cuts, or broken bones, that the person tries to explain away or that don’t match their explanation
- Emotional signs: Depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, fear, and feelings of helplessness or hopelessness
- Behavioral signs: Withdrawing from friends and family, avoiding social situations, changing their behavior or appearance, and acting nervous or jumpy
- Financial signs: Having limited access to money or financial resources, being prevented from working, or being forced to account for every penny spent
- Sexual signs: Engaging in unwanted sexual activity or being coerced into sexual acts
- Psychological signs: Gas lighting (making someone question their sanity), belittling, name-calling, or constantly criticizing the victim
- Control signs: Attempting to control every aspect of the victim’s life, such as whom they see, what they wear, or where they go
Domestic violence is always a serious issue; counseling can be a life-saving step toward safety and healing. However, knowing when it’s bad enough to seek help or domestic violence therapy can be challenging. Nevertheless, here are some indications that it may be time to seek support:
- The abuse is ongoing: If it is happening frequently or becoming more severe, seeking help as soon as possible is essential.
- The abuse affects your safety: If you fear for your safety or the safety of your children, it’s crucial to seek help immediately. Don’t wait until the situation becomes worse.
- The abuse affects your mental health: If the abuse is causing you to feel anxious, depressed, or hopeless, seeking domestic violence therapy can help you manage these feelings and develop coping strategies.
- The abuse is affecting your daily life: If the abuse is preventing you from working, going to school, or maintaining relationships, seeking help can get your life back on track.
It’s important to remember that seeking help or therapy for domestic violence does not mean you are weak. It is not your fault that you are experiencing abuse. Many resources are available to help individuals experiencing domestic violence, including hotlines, support groups, and therapy. Don’t hesitate to reach out for help when you need it.
Insurance may be able to help cover the cost of therapy. Find out if your insurance can help with the costs by calling your insurance provider. If you’re interested in making an appointment at Athena Care for mental health care, contact us below. One of our care coordinators will help you navigate your insurance coverage and get the mental health help that you need.
How Domestic Violence Affects Mental Health
Domestic violence can significantly impact mental health. Experiencing mental health issues due to domestic violence is not a weakness or a personal failure. Instead, it’s a normal response to an abnormal situation. It’s not uncommon for victims of domestic violence to experience a range of mental health issues, including, but not limited to, the following:10
- Anxiety: Victims of domestic violence may constantly feel on edge, anticipating the next incident of abuse.
- Depression: Domestic violence can lead to feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness.
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Domestic violence can cause victims to experience flashbacks, nightmares, and other symptoms of PTSD.
- Substance abuse: Victims may turn to drugs or alcohol to cope with the trauma they’ve experienced.
- Self-harm: Some victims may engage in self-harming behaviors to cope with the emotional pain they are experiencing.
- Suicide: Victims of domestic violence are at a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.11
- Please call the Suicide and Crisis Lifeline at 988 if you or someone you know is contemplating suicide. Someone can help 24 hours a day, and services are available in English and Spanish.
Children who witness domestic abuse are more likely to develop various emotional, behavioral, and psychiatric issues. For example, they may feel anxious, fearful, depressed, and helpless. They may also experience sleep disturbances, nightmares, and difficulty concentrating.
Children exposed to domestic violence are also at an increased risk of developing mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. They may also experience difficulty forming healthy relationships and have low self-esteem.
Abuse can also mentally affect the loved ones of domestic violence victims. They may feel helpless, guilty, and ashamed that they could not prevent the abuse or help the victim. They may also experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues due to the trauma they have experienced.
Both children and loved ones of domestic violence victims should seek support and resources to help cope with the damaging effects of domestic abuse. This may include therapy, counseling, support groups, and other resources.
Seeking domestic abuse counseling can help you manage your mental health symptoms and develop coping strategies toward healing. If you or someone you know is experiencing or witnessing domestic violence and struggling with their mental health, it’s important to seek support as soon as possible.
Domestic Violence Counseling, Therapy & Treatment
Domestic violence counseling and therapy is a long-term process that may take several months or even years to achieve the desired outcomes. The goal is to heal from the trauma of domestic violence and build a life free from abuse. Domestic violence counseling, therapy, and treatment typically involve a structured, supportive, and evidence-based approach. Here’s an overview of the process:
- Safety Planning: The first step is to ensure you’re safe and free from immediate danger. The counselor or therapist will work with you to develop a safety plan to protect you from further harm.
- Assessment: Your treatment provider will then conduct a thorough evaluation to understand the history of abuse, its impact on your life, and any mental health concerns.
- Psychoeducation: The counselor or therapist will provide psychoeducation about domestic violence, including the cycle of abuse, the effects on mental health, and the resources available for support and safety.
- Therapy or Counseling: The counselor or therapist will provide individual or group therapy, using evidence-based techniques to help you process your experiences, learn coping strategies, and develop healthy boundaries and relationships.
- Skill Building: You’ll develop skills to improve your mental health, including stress reduction techniques, communication skills, and conflict resolution strategies.
- Referrals and Resources: A counselor or therapist may refer you to other services, such as legal assistance, housing support, or medical care, to help address the broader impacts of domestic violence.
The specific type of therapy used in domestic violence counseling will depend on your needs, preferences, and goals. Trained therapists or counselors can help determine the type of therapy that best suits you. There are several approaches commonly used for domestic violence counseling, including:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT is a type of therapy that focuses on changing negative thought patterns and behaviors. In domestic violence counseling, CBT can help individuals learn new coping strategies and develop healthy boundaries and communication skills.
- Trauma-focused therapy: Trauma-focused therapy helps individuals process and heal from trauma. In domestic violence counseling, trauma-focused treatment can help individuals process the traumatic events they’ve experienced and develop strategies for managing the symptoms of PTSD.
- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): EMDR helps individuals process traumatic memories by stimulating the brain’s natural healing processes. In domestic violence counseling, EMDR can effectively treat PTSD and other trauma-related disorders.
- Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): DBT combines cognitive-behavioral techniques with mindfulness and emotional regulation skills. In domestic violence counseling, DBT can help individuals manage intense emotions and develop healthy coping strategies.
- Group therapy: Group therapy can provide a supportive environment where you can connect with those who have experienced similar traumas. In domestic violence counseling, group therapy can help you feel less isolated and provide a sense of community.
Furthermore, while couples counseling can be an effective tool for addressing relationship issues, it may not be appropriate for couples where domestic abuse is present.12 There are safety concerns and dynamics to consider regarding couples counseling for domestic abuse. For example, if there is a history or risk of physical harm, the victim’s safety should be the primary concern. In such cases, individual counseling is better for the victim and perpetrator.
In addition, domestic violence is often characterized by an imbalance of power in the relationship. Couples counseling can further reinforce this dynamic, with the perpetrator using the sessions to control and manipulate the victim. This can harm the victim and may not lead to meaningful change.
For couples counseling to be effective, both partners must take responsibility for their actions. However, perpetrators of domestic abuse often minimize or deny their behavior. Therefore, it may be more productive for the perpetrator to attend individual counseling to address their behavior and learn healthy coping strategies.
Treatment is not a one-size-fits-all solution for domestic violence. Each case is unique and requires an individualized approach. As a result, counseling for domestic violence may not always be the right approach in certain situations where immediate safety concerns are present. Other forms of intervention may be necessary in these cases, such as involving the police or seeking emergency shelter. Here are some situations where therapy may not be the appropriate course of action:
- Active abuse: If the abuse is ongoing or there is a risk of immediate harm, the first priority should be to ensure the victim’s safety. This may involve contacting the police or seeking emergency shelter.
- Lack of motivation: If the abuser is not motivated to change their behavior or is not taking responsibility for their actions, therapy may be ineffective. In these cases, it may be necessary to involve legal or criminal justice interventions.
- Substance abuse: If the perpetrator of domestic violence has a substance abuse problem, it may be necessary to address the addiction before therapy can be effective. Substance abuse can contribute to or exacerbate domestic violence, and addressing the addiction may be required for lasting change.
- Mental health concerns: If the abuser has significant unaddressed mental health concerns, therapy may be ineffective. In these cases, it may be necessary to involve mental health professionals or other medical interventions.
In addition, although they can be helpful in domestic violence therapy, medications are not usually the primary course of treatment. However, medication may be prescribed depending on your unique requirements and circumstances. For instance, a mental health professional may suggest antidepressant or anti-anxiety meds as part of your treatment plan if you exhibit signs of depression or anxiety.
In Tennessee, professionals must meet specific qualifications to provide domestic violence therapy. The following professionals are qualified to provide domestic violence counseling in Tennessee:
- Licensed professional counselors (LPC): LPCs must hold a master’s degree in counseling or a related field and have completed at least 3,000 hours of supervised counseling experience.13
- Licensed clinical social workers (LCSW): LCSWs are required to hold a master’s degree in social work and have completed a minimum of 3,000 hours of supervised social work experience.14
- Licensed marriage and family therapists (LMFT): LMFTs must obtain a master’s degree in marriage and family therapy and have completed at least 3,000 hours of supervised marriage and family therapy experience.15
- Psychologists: Psychologists in Tennessee must hold a doctoral degree in psychology and have completed a minimum of 1,500 hours of supervised experience.16
- Licensed psychiatrists: Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in treating mental health disorders, including domestic violence-related trauma. They must have a Doctoral degree, complete an internship, undergo two years of supervised experience, and pass several licensing exams.17
- Certified domestic violence counselors: Individuals who don’t hold a license as a mental health professional can obtain certification as a domestic violence counselor by completing specific training and education requirements set forth by the Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services.18
Domestic Violence Therapy Treatment Costs & Insurance Coverage
The following costs for domestic abuse counseling are average. A variety of factors contribute to the final cost, including the details in your particular insurance policy and your location in Tennessee.
The CDC reports that the average fee for clients seeking mental health care after physical violence was $1,017 per incident. The typical expense for those who were sexually abused is $978.19
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) typically costs between $100 and $200 per session and is generally regarded as a short-term treatment, with therapy sessions ranging from 5 to 20.20 Additionally, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy usually costs between $100 and $250 per session. Given that desired results might require several therapy sessions, the overall price of EMDR may range from $800 to $2,000.21
Insurance often covers a portion of the cost of therapy in Tennessee. However, many insurance providers may only pay for a predetermined number of sessions and require a formal diagnosis. In addition, the location of the therapy, your specific insurance plan, and whether the therapist is in-network or out-of-network, among other factors, can impact your out-of-pocket costs.
Prescription drug policies frequently cover antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. Insurance plans, however, may only cover certain classifications, dosage schedules, or the generic type rather than the brand name.
The Affordable Care Act prohibits plans from charging more based on your health status so you can access affordable coverage that addresses your particular situation. Plans must also include a comprehensive benefits package, called the essential health benefits, that includes different mental and behavioral health services.22
Athena Care has multiple treatment clinics throughout Tennessee, and we are in-network with most major insurance plans. Therefore, filling out our free, no-obligation online insurance verification form is the best way to gain the information needed to begin domestic violence counseling.
Our highly experienced, knowledgeable care coordinators will handle the challenges of contacting your insurance carrier for more information about your coverage. After submitting the form, a care coordinator will review your policy and thoroughly explain your options for domestic violence counseling. We take confidentiality very seriously, so you can rest assured that any information you provide or discuss will be kept private.
Domestic Violence Therapy Treatment Success & Outlook
The outlook for domestic violence counseling is generally positive, as many effective therapeutic approaches and interventions are available to support victims of domestic violence. With the proper support and resources, you can heal and recover and go on to lead a healthy and fulfilling life.
Below are a few statistics to support domestic violence therapy’s generally positive outlook:
- Using CBT over six weeks was successful in reducing not only depressed and chronic PTSD symptoms but also more subtle symptoms such as impaired self-esteem and dysfunctional sexual behavior.23
- There is still much to understand, but EMDR has been shown to be a successful, affordable, short-term therapy for treating acute and persistent PTSD in sexual assault victims.24
- Group therapy is effective for domestic violence victims, particularly when combined with individual therapy.25
The duration of domestic violence therapy can vary depending on several factors, including the severity and timeline of the abuse, your specific needs and goals, your progress, your level of engagement and commitment to the process, and the therapeutic approach used. Domestic violence therapy is generally considered short-term therapy, with treatment plans ranging from a few weeks to several months.
Regardless of how long the abuse persisted, therapy for domestic violence survivors requires time and effort before desired therapeutic outcomes become noticeable. “Getting over it” may never be part of the process. However, you may notice decreased symptoms after a few weeks. Although this typically occurs over several months. It’s also not uncommon to feel worse before you begin feeling better.
Measuring the effectiveness of counseling services for domestic violence or abuse can be challenging, as progress can be subjective and vary from person to person. However, below are some signs that therapy may be working:
- Improved mood
- Reduction in symptoms
- Increased self-awareness
- Improved relationships
- Greater sense of control
- Progress towards goals
Additional Resources & Programs for Domestic Violence Victims
- National Domestic Violence Hotline: Call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at1-800-799-7233. This hotline offers confidential support and information to domestic violence victims 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
- Local domestic violence shelters: Many communities have shelters or safe houses for domestic violence victims. These organizations offer secure and confidential housing, counseling, support groups, and other resources.
- LoveisRespect.org: For young individuals between 13 and 26 with inquiries or concerns regarding their romantic relationships, dial 1-866-331-9474. Love is Respect is the National Dating Abuse hotline providing 24/7 information, support, and advocacy.
- National Sexual Assault Hotline: RAINN is the nation’s largest anti-sexual violence organization. Call 1-800.656.HOPE.
- National Resource Center on Domestic Violence: Since its founding in 1993, the NRCDV has advocated for sound public policy, institutional responses and research, and involvement in prevention to increase the capacity of programs serving victims of domestic violence and their families. Call 1-800-537-2238.
- Futures without Violence: To support individuals and groups striving to prevent violence against women and children worldwide, FUTURES has been developing ground-breaking initiatives, policies, and campaigns.
- National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health: The National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health offers training, assistance, and advice to advocates, mental health and substance abuse providers, legal professionals, and policymakers as they strive to enhance agency- and system-level responses to survivors of domestic abuse and their children.
- The Initiative: The Initiative, formerly known as the Domestic Violence Initiative or DVI, promotes the rights of abused people with disabilities. The Initiative works to eliminate abuse from society through our outreach program and direct assistance.
- Women of Color Network: WOCN, Inc., a nationwide grassroots organization, aims to increase the ability of advocates for women of color to address violence against women of color.
- Battered Women’s Justice Project: The BWJP is the primary national legal resource for gender-based violence, offering some of the country’s top policy and practice efforts for enhancing survivor safety.
- Women’s Law.org: Legal information for abuse victims in plain language.
- The Network/La Red: To eliminate intimate partner violence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, kink, polyamorous, and queer communities, The Network/La Red is a survivor-led social justice group.
- Barrier, Patricia A. “Domestic Violence.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 73, no. 3, Elsevier BV, Mar. 1998, pp. 271–74. https://doi.org/10.4065/73.3.271.
- Langley, Marty. “American Roulette: Murder-Suicide in the United States.” Violence Policy Center, July 2020, vpc.org/studies/amroul2020.pdf.
- “Domestic Violence Statistics – the Hotline.” The Hotline, 23 Feb. 2023, www.thehotline.org/stakeholders/domestic-violence-statistics.
- “Fast Facts: Preventing Intimate Partner Violence.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 11 Oct. 2022, www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/fastfact.html.
- “Types of Abuse | Women Against Abuse.” Women Against Abuse, www.womenagainstabuse.org/education-resources/learn-about-abuse/types-of-domestic-violence.
- “Types of Abuse – the Hotline.” The Hotline, 24 Feb. 2023, www.thehotline.org/resources/types-of-abuse.
- Gillette, Hope H. “The 4 Stages of the Cycle of Abuse: From Tension to Calm and Back.” Psych Central, 15 July 2022, psychcentral.com/health/cycle-of-abuse.
- “Why Do People Abuse | the National Domestic Violence Hotline.” The Hotline, 14 Mar. 2022, www.thehotline.org/identify-abuse/why-do-people-abuse.
- “Domestic Abuse Is a Gendered Crime – Women’s Aid.” Women’s Aid, 3 Aug. 2021, www.womensaid.org.uk/information-support/what-is-domestic-abuse/domestic-abuse-is-a-gendered-crime.
- “Understanding the Impact of Domestic Violence.” McLean Hospital, 21 Oct. 2022, www.mcleanhospital.org/essential/domestic-violence.
- Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka. “Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship From Public Health Perspective.” Health Psychology Research, vol. 2, no. 3, PAGEPress (Italy), Oct. 2014, https://doi.org/10.4081/hpr.2014.1821.
- “Should I Go to Couples Therapy With My Abusive Partner? – the Hotline.” The Hotline, 14 Apr. 2022, www.thehotline.org/resources/should-i-go-to-couples-therapy-with-my-abusive-partner.
- “How to Become a Licensed Counselor (LPC) in Tennessee.” CORP-MAC0 (OCP), 8 July 2022, onlinecounselingprograms.com/become-a-counselor/counseling-licensure/how-to-become-a-counselor-in-tennessee.
- “Social Work Licensure in Tennessee | Find Accredited Programs.” SocialWorkLicensure.org, July 2019, socialworklicensure.org/state/social-work-licensure-tennessee.
- “Tennessee State Resources.” American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, www.aamft.org/Advocacy/State_Resources/Tennessee.aspx. Accessed 13 Apr. 2023.
- “Tennessee, TN: Psychology License to Become a Certified Psychologist – Human Services Edu.” Human Services Edu, www.humanservicesedu.org/tennessee-psychology-requirements.
- “Tennessee Psychology Licensure Requirements.” Psychology Degree 411, 9 Jan. 2023, www.psychologydegree411.com/licensure/tennessee.
- Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. “Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services.” TN.gov, www.tn.gov/behavioral-health.html. Accessed 13 Apr. 2023.
- Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. “Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mar. 2003, www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipvbook-a.pdf.
- Lauretta, Ashley. “How Much Does Therapy Cost?” edited by Alena Hall, Forbes Health, 2021, https://www.forbes.com/health/mind/how-much-does-therapy-cost/
- “How Much Does EMDR Therapy Cost?” HowMuchIsIt.Org, 2018, https://www.howmuchisit.org/emdr-therapy-cost/
- Brewer-Muse, Lynn. NCADV | National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. ncadv.org/blog/posts/the-ahca-and-what-domestic-violence-survivors-need-to-know-about-it.
- Resick, Patricia A., et al. “How Well Does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treat Symptoms of Complex PTSD? An Examination of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors Within a Clinical Trial.” CNS Spectrums, vol. 8, no. 5, Cambridge UP, May 2003, pp. 340–55. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852900018605.
- Posmontier, Bobbie, et al. “Sexual Violence: Psychiatric Healing With Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization.” Health Care for Women International, vol. 31, no. 8, Taylor and Francis, July 2010, pp. 755–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399331003725523.
- Crespo, Maria Liz, et al. “Analysis of Effectiveness of Individual and Group Trauma-Focused Interventions for Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 18, no. 4, MDPI, Feb. 2021, p. 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041952.
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